"Gender studies is a field of inquiry that explores the ways femininity and masculinity are an integral part of the ways people think about social organizations and institutions, dispositions of power, interpersonal relationships, and understandings of identity, sexuality, and subjectivity. An enlargement of what was initially known as 'women's studies,' gender studies identifies, analyzes, and often critiques the disparate effects of patriarchal organizations on women and men. Gender studies also often includes studies of sexuality associated with the work of feminist scholars and activists, as well as gay and lesbian scholars of sexuality. Since the mid-1990s it has also undertaken issues of transgender, intersexuality, and transsexuality." --Roof, Judith. "Gender Studies." Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender. Ed. Fedwa Malti-Douglas. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 624-628. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web.