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APA Style 7th Edition

Reference Citations

Audio Recording

Album • Track • Radio • Spoken Word

See also Podcasts.

Needed Information

  • Artist(s), Author(s), Speaker(s)
    • If no artist, author, or speaker is listed move the title of the work of art into the place of the author (before the date).
  • Date of release, publication, or performance
    • If there is no date associated with the work use the designation 'n.d.' in place of the date
  • Title of the work
    • If the work is untitled, in square brackets give a description of the work
  • Type of work - album, song, audiobook, audio track, interview, speech audio recording
  • Label, publisher, website, content holder
  • If the item is in physical format give the location (generally city, state, nation)
  • If the item is online give the URL



Barnum, P. T. (2011). The art of money getting [Audiobook]. LibriVox. (Original work published in 1880)

Bob Marley and the Wailers. (1984). Legend [Album]. Island; Tuff Gong.

Brown, B. (2018). Dare to lead: Brave work, tough conversations, whole hearts [Audiobook]. Random House Audio.

Mozart, W. A. (2008). Mozart: The symphonies [Album recorded by the Prague Chamber Orchestra]. Telarc. (Original works composed 1764-1778)

Panrucker, S. (2015). Hello my name is Simon Panrucker [Album]. Free Music Archive.

van Schalkwyk, W. (Pianist), & Faganel, G. (Cellist). (2018, February 7). Faculty recital [Album]. University of Northern Colorado.

Verdi, G. (2015). Requiem mass [Album recorded by the UNC Symphony Orchestra & Choirs]. University of Northern Colorado. (Original work composed ca. 1874)

Wonder, S. (1976). Songs in the key of life [Album]. Tamla.


Beyoncé. (2020). Black parade [Song]. Park; Columbia.

Creedence Clearwater Revival. (1969). Fortunate son [Song]. On Willy and the poor boys. Fantasy.

Manson, M. (2016). The tyranny of exceptionalism [Audio track]. In The subtle art of not giving a f*ck: A counterintuitive approach to living a good life. HarperCollins; Blackstone Audio.

Roberts, D. (2021). Race [Audio track]. In N. Hannah-Jones, C. Roper, I. Silverman, & J. Silverstein (Eds.), The 1619 project. One World.

Xavier Cugat and His Orchestra. (1953). Mi prieta [Song]. On Mambo. Mercury; Internet Archive.


Coates, E. J. (2019, August 20). Audio recording of interview with Elaine J. Coates [Interview]. University of Maryland Libraries, Special Collections and University Archives.

Saunders, V. (1990, December 1). The living memory of the Jewish community: Saunders, Vernon (Part 3) [Interview]. British Library Sounds.

Scroggins, B. (n.d.). Bessie Scroggins [Interview]. University of Northern Colorado, Archives & Special Collections @ Digital UNC.

Wynne, S. W. (1931, November 30). Diet and health with Dr. Shirley W. Wynne, health commissioner [Interview]. WYNC, NYPR Archive Collections.


Gore, K. (2000). [Kristen Gore, daughter of Tipper Gore, gives a speech about her mother] [Speech audio recording]. Michigan State University Libraries, East Lansing, MI, United States.

Harding, W. G. (1920). National and Americanism [Speech audio recording]. Library of Congress.

Poehler, A. (2011, May 26). Harvard University class day commencement address [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric.

Ruth, G. H., Jr. (1947, April 27). Dying Babe Ruth addresses fans [Speech audio recording]. History.

Truman, H. S. (1934, July 28). Judge Harry S. Truman Speech, Springfield, Missouri (SR84-1) [Speech audio recording]. Harry S. Truman Library & Museum, Independence, MO, United States.



When discussing an entire blog in your paper (and not indicating a specific idea, fact, or document) it is acceptable to simply include the URL of the website in parentheses within your writing. If you are referring to a specific piece of information or directly quoting information on a blog, a text and reference citation are required.


The blog Just a Colorado Gal ( covers not only hiking gear, routes, basics, and specifics, but also follow’s the life of the blogger.

Authors of academic papers can find useful tips and answers to APA questions not covered in the Publication Manual on the APA Style Blog (

With the tag line 'writer. professor. part-time hippie.' the Stacia L. Brown blog ( offers readers current news topics with a human element and a humane eye.

Adventures of a Labor Nurse: The Highs and Lows of Labor and Delivery blog ( looks at the nursing profession and the people with humor and grace.

Blog Entry

Information Needed

  • Author(s)
  • Date of Post (Year, Month Day)
  • Title of Post
  • Title of Blog
  • URL


Hoffman, C. (2022, March 3). Your wif-fi is in Google and Microsoft's databases: Should you care? How-To Geek

McAdoo, T. (2020, March 16). How to create an APA Style reference for a canceled conference presentation. APA Style.

Our fave podcasts + audio books for holiday travel. (2019, November 19). Love Sweat Fitness.

Comment on Blog Entry

Information Needed

  • Author screenname/username or proper name
  • Date of comment (Year, Month Day)
  • Title of comment or first 20 words of comment
  • Title of blog
  • URL


Azavedo, M. (2021, March 2). Your approach excites me, is what I too do. I really want to get my hands on the book you [Comment on the article “Creative writing for social research”]. The Research Whisperer.

Jonathan. (2013, January 6). It’s not that work is less important, but that you can get it done efficiently, the right way [Comment on the article “Do you have an overwork problem?”]. Get a life, PhD.

Woshiernog. (2022, March 16). Why are people so gung-ho about talking about sexual things to K-3rd graders and hiding those thing from the student parents? [Comment on the article “Marvel Studio denounces ‘Don’t Say Gay’ bill as Disney employees plan walkout”]. Gizmodo.


Authored Book • Edited Book • Anthology • Book Edition • eBook with DOI 
eBook from Library Database 
• Other eBooks

If citing only a chapter from an edited book, see examples for chapters in edited books.

Information Needed

  • Author(s) or editor(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of book
  • Publisher Name (if the author and the publisher is the same, omit the publisher)
  • If not the first edition of a book: Edition number
  • If part of a multi-volume set: Volume number
  • If an ebook: DOI or URL, unless ebook is from library database


Authored Book

Cabaniss, A. (1970). Liturgy and literature: Selected Essays. University of Alabama Press.

Chandler, D., & Werther, W. B., Jr. (2014). Strategic corporate social responsibility: Stakeholders, globalization, and sustainable value creation (3rd ed.). SAGE Publications.

Rhodes, C. (2020). Disturbing business ethics: Emmanuel Levinas and the politics of organization. Routledge.

Edited Book

Felker, G. M., & Mann, D. L. (Eds.). (2020). Heart failure: A companion to Braunwald's heart disease. Elsevier.

Garnett, S., Latch, P., Lindenmayer, D., & Woinarski, J. (Eds.). (2018). Recovering threatened species: A book of hope. CSIRO Publishing.

Pappas, G., & Guajardo, M. (Eds.). (1993). Colorado Hispanics: A report of selected social concerns Latin American Research and Service Agency.


125th anniversary anthology, 1839-1964: A sampling of reading tastes from the lists of an American publisher with a brief historical commentary. (1964). Dodd, Mead & Co.

Garnett, R., Valle'e, L., & Brandl, A. (Eds.). (1902). The universal anthology: A collection of the best literature, ancient, medieval and modern, with biographical and explanatory notes (Westminster Ed., Vol. 33). Merrill & Baker.

Gates, H. L., Jr., & Smith, V. (Eds.). (2014). The Norton anthology of African American literature (3rd ed., Vol. 2). W. W. Norton & Company.

Book Edition

Finkelnburg, W. (1964). Structure of matter (W. Finkenburg & O. Matossi-Riechmeier, Trans., 9th/10th ed.). Springer.

Reid, A., Tu, S., Port, K. L. (2018). Fundamentals of United States intellectual property law: Copyright, patent, and trademark (6th ed.). Kluwer Law International.

Turekian, K. K. (2010). Marine chemistry and geochemistry: A derivative of encyclopedia of ocean sciences (2nd ed.). Academic Press.

eBook with DOI

Goldman, M. B., Troisi, R., & Rexrode, K. M. (2013). Women and health (2nd ed.). Elsevier.

Jones, P., Miles, D., & Gopalkrishnan, N. (2019). Intercultural learning: Critical preparation for international student travel. UTS ePRESS.

Kersten, F. (1997). Galileo and the 'invention' of opera: A study in the phenomenology of consciousness. Springer:

eBook from Library Database

Cite as an eBook with DOI if the book has a DOI (examples above).
Cite as a print book if the book does not have a DOI (examples above).

Other eBooks (no DOI, not from a library database)

Curnow, K. (2018). The bright continent: African art history. MSL Academic Endeavors.

Doyle, G. R., & McCuthcheon, J. A. (2015). Clinical procedures for safer patient care. British Columbia Institute of Technology.

Vatsyayana. (2009). The kama sutra of Vatsyayana: Translated from the Sanscrit in seven parts with preface, introduction and concluding remarks (S. P. Bhide, R. F. Burton, & B. Indrajit, Trans.). Project Gutenberg. (Original work published in 1883)

Book Chapter ♦ Reference Work Entry

Book Chapter • Handbook Section/Chapter • Dictionary Entry 
Encyclopedia Entry • Wikipedia Entry

Generally, only cite book chapters when the book has editors and chapters are by different authors or groups of authors. When citing a book with authors but no editors, cite the whole book in the reference list and, if appropriate, give the chapter number in the text citation.

Information Needed

  • Chapter author(s) 
  • Year of publication
  • Title of chapter, section, or author
  • Book editor(s)
  • Page numbers of chapter, section, or author
  • Title of book
  • Publisher Name (if the author and the publisher is the same, omit the publisher)
  • If not the first edition of a book: Edition number
  • If part of a multi-volume set: Volume number
  • If an ebook: DOI or URL, unless ebook is from library database

For information of when to use a DOI, URL, or neither, see the Book section.


Edited Book Chapter

Fasina, A. (2015). Case 3: Altered mental status. In Y. Okuda & B. P. Nelson (Eds.), Emergency medicine oral board review illustrated (2nd ed., pp. 47-50). Cambridge University Press.

Levy, R., & Dawson, P. (2014). Interactive worlds as educational tools for understanding arctic life. In K. Kee (Ed). Pastplay: Teaching and learning history with technology (pp. 66-86). University of Michigan Press.     In-Text Citation Examples

Pegoraro, A., Scott, O., & Burch, L. M. (2017). Strategic use of Facebook to build brand awareness: A case study of two national sport organizations. In Information Resources Management Association (Ed.), Sports, media, marketing, and management: Breakthroughs in research and practice (pp. 97-118). IGI Global. 

Handbook Section/Chapter

Gallardo, A. R. (2017). Galician political refugees in Portugal during the civil war and post-civil war (1936-1945). In R. DePalma & A. Pérez-Caramés (Eds.), Galician migrations: A case study of emerging super-diversity (pp.51-62). Springer.     In-Text Citation Examples

Lin, W. (2020). Participatory geographic information systems in visual research. In L. Pauwels & D. Mannay (Eds)., The SAGE handbook of visual research methods (2nd ed., pp. 173-185). SAGE Publications. 

Warren, J., & Gu, Y. (2017). Pragmatic health information technology evaluation framework. In F. Lau & C. Kuziemsky (Eds.), Handbook of ehealth evaluation: An evidence-based approach (pp. 109-122). University of Victoria.     In-Text Citation Examples


For online reference works that are continuously updated, such as the online version of the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the publication date should be recorded as n.d. (no date) and the date you looked at the online article is placed before the URL in the citation.

  • Dictionary entry examples: #1 and #2
  • Encyclopedia entry examples: #1 and #3

Even some more 'official' dictionaries and encyclopedias are updated in an on-going basis and should follow the rule above. For instance, the first example under Encyclopedias is called a 'living edition' even though it has a DOI, ISBN, and publisher. Therefore, the citation requires that 'no date' be indicated in the publication date and retrieval information is included before the URL.

Because Wikipedia keeps copies of each version of each article, do not use 'no date' in place of the publication date, nor include retrieval date information. 

Dictionary Entry

Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Ennui. In Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved June 1, 2020, from     In-Text Citation Examples

Chico F. (n.d.). Carmelyzed. In W. Rader (Ed.), The online slang dictionary: American, English, and urban slang. Retrieved June 1, 2020, from     In-Text Citation Examples

Herbert, M. (2020). Quaile, Mary (1886-1958): Trade union organizer. In K. Gildart & D. Howell (Eds.), Dictionary of labour biography (pp. 201-208). Palgrave MacMillan.     In-Text Citation Examples

Encyclopedia Entry

Bendimarad, F., Zayas, J., Khazai, & Borinaga, M. K. (n.d.). Building disaster resiliency through disaster risk management master planning. In M. Beer, I. A. Kougiomtzoglou, E. Patelli, & I. Siu-Kui Au (Eds.), Encyclopedia of earthquake engineering. Springer. Retrieved June 1, 2020, from     In-Text Citation Examples

Reynolds, C. R., Vannest, K. J., & Fletcher-Janzen, E. (2014). Visual-motor and visual-perceptual problems.  In Encyclopedia of special education, Vol. 4: A reference for the education of children, adolescents, and adults with disabilities and other exceptional individuals (4th ed., pp. 2727-2728). Wiley. 

U.S. National Library of Medicine. (n.d.). Cleft lip and palate. In Medline Plus. Retrieved June 1, 2020, from     In-Text Citation Examples

Wikipedia Entry

To find the date of the article you wish to cite, click on "View History" in the top, right-hand corner of the Wikipedia page, and select the most current version of the article by clicking on the most current date. The URL will now have a series of numbers at the end, indicating an archived version of the Wikipedia article that gives reference to the exact version of the article you accessed.

Wikipedia View History Example
To view an enlarged version of this image, right click and open in a new tab.

Apollo command and service module. (2020, July 26). In Wikipedia     In-Text Citation Examples

Jill Coit. (2020, February 3). In Wikipedia.     In-Text Citation Examples

Postmodernist film. (2020, July 16). In Wikipedia     In-Text Citation Examples


Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Information Needed

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of systematic review
  • DOI


Foxcroft, D. R., Moreira, M. T., Almeida Santimano, N. M. L., & Smith, L. A. (2015). Social norms information for alcohol misuse in university and college students. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Molyneaux, E., Howard, L. M., McGeown, H. R., Karia, A. M., & Trevillion, K. (2014). Antidepressant treatment for postnatal depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Pellicori, P., Doolub, G., Wong, C. M., Lee, K. S., Mangion, K., Ahmad, M., Berry, C., Squire, I., Lambiase, P. D., Lyon, A., McConnachie, A., Taylor, R. S., & Cleland, J. G. F. (2021). COVID-19 and its cardiovascular effects: A systematic review of prevalence studies. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Conference Session

If citing a canceled presentation or a conference that was planned for in-person attendance but changed to virtual, see the APA Blog article How to Create an APA Style Reference for a Canceled Conference Presentation

Information Needed

  • Presenter(s)
  • Dates of conference (generally Year, Month Day-Day)
  • Title of session
  • Type of session (Conference session, Paper presentation, Poster presentation, Plenary session, Keynote, Workshop, etc.)
  • Name of conference
  • Location of conference
    • Generally City, State, Nation or equivalent
    • If a completely virtual conference, do not include a location
  • URL (if available)


Conference Session - In-Person or Hybrid Conference

Blackman, C., Fore, I., & Skinner, K. (2016, May 16-19). A new dimension for team science – individual and system elements in collaboration [Workshop]. Science of Team Science (SciTS) 2016 Conference.

Gustetic, J. (2019, September 21-24). Opening session [Keynote]. 2019 ASTC Annual Conference. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Radford, M. L., Kitzie, V., Mikitish, S., Floegel, D., & Silipigni Connaway, L. (2019, April 10-13). Trending now: Recasting services to support scholarly identity work [Paper presentation]. ACRL 2019. Cleveland, OH, United States.

Sablan, J., Edwards, K., Wiles, L. J., Guillen, C., & Bai, Z. (2018, March 3-7). Collaboration across units: Lessons shared in support of undergraduate and graduate student transitional experiences [Poster presentation]. 2018 NASPA Annual Conference. Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Smith, K. (2016, June 6-7). Libraries & copyright: The past and present [Conference session]. Kraemer Copyright Conference. Colorado Springs, CO, United States.


Conference Session - Virtual Only Conference

Chow, K. (2022, January 31-February). Propelling Java at Alibaba scale [Plenary session]. CMG IMPACT 2022.

Hacker, D. (2022, February 24-25). Deprived at both ends: Women under secular and religious family law [Keynote]. Fifth International Conference on the Future of Women.

Many, A., Parks, J., Zaback, K., & Zinth, J. (2021, October 18-19). Building OER capacity in the Midwest: Supporting grassroots efforts and statewide collaboration [Conference session]. Open Education Conference.

Ybarra, J., Anderson, J., & Karr, S. (2021, April 18). The mediating role of self-efficacy on the math anxiety-performance relationship [Poster presentation]. University of Northern Colorado Research Day 2021.

Data Set

Information Needed

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication/year of posting/year of release
  • Title of data set
  • Version number, if given
  • Publisher
  • DOI or URL, if an online data set


Bywater-Reyes, S., Diehl, R. M., & Wilcox, A. C. (2018). The influence of a vegetated bar on channel-bend flow dynamics (no. 5) [Data set]. University of Northern Colorado, Scholarship & Creative Works @ Digital UNC.

Doornwaard, S. M., ter Bogt, T. F. M., Reitz, E., & van den Eijnden, R. J. J. M. (2016). Sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms and adolescents’ experience with sexual behavior: Testing an integrative model [Data set]. Dryad.

National Center for State Courts. (1984). Criminal case processing in metropolitan courts, 1976 [Data set]. University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.

National Oceanographic Data Center. (1988). Environmental buoy data [Data set]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Pastor, D., Patterson, C., & Goldberg, A. (2021). Anticipated future political participation: A college student sample (Version 1) [Data set, code book, and instrument]. ICPSR.

DOI - Digital Object Identifier


DOI Example


Definition of DOI

A digital object identifier (DOI) is an alphanumeric code that is assigned to content to provide a persistent identifier (like a social security number for articles and chapters and other content). A DOI acts as a locator - helping individuals find articles and chapters cited in bibliographies. DOIs are preferable to URLs because even if the URL for an article breaks in the future, the DOI will remain constant.

DOIs and APA Style

In APA-style reference citations, always express the DOI as a URL (see below). This may sound confusing (after all, DOIs different than URLS), but expressing a DOI as a URL allows readers to more easily access the document you cited. DOIs are commonly seen on born-digital content, but may also be included in the print version of content. DOIs always begin with 10; however, a DOI can be expressed as a URL, where appears in front of the DOI. If you find a DOI on a source you are citing that does not include as a prefix, add it to the DOI for the APA citation. It is best to copy and paste the DOI from digital content to your bibliography so that there are no transcription errors - but don't forget to change the font and font size to match the rest of your paper!

DOI without URL prefix

same DOI with URL prefix added

Where to Find the DOI

1. The DOI should be listed on the first page of a journal article. It is sometimes more difficult to find a DOI on a book or book chapter – check the title page verso.  The DOI may or may not be prefaced with the letters DOI.

DOI on the Article First Page - Example 1
  DOI on the Article First Page - Example 2  

2. DOIs are often included in database records.  Thus, when searching a library database like Academic Search Premier, SpringerLink, or Summon, if a DOI is assigned to an article, book, or book chapter, the DOI will be included in the database record.

DOI in a Database Record - Example 1
DOI in a Database Record - Example 2

3. DOIs may also be found in the bibliography of an article – as authors are now using DOIs as a citation tool. If you find a DOI in a bibliography and want to find the actual article, book, or book chapter (or at least further citation information), you need to use a DOI resolver (see

Film, Television & Video

Feature Film • Documentary Film • Educational Film • Television Series 
Television Episode • TED Talks • YouTube • Vimeo • Webinar

Feature Film

Information Needed

  • Director(s)
  • Year of release
  • Film title - if non-English film, include both the title in the original language and the English version of title)
  • Format type - it is not incorrect to include the format type always; but it is necessary to include the format type if the format provides additional content, such as a DVD with commentary or extras.
  • Production company/companies


Anders, A., Rockwell, A., Rodriguez, R., & Tarantino, Q. (Directors). (1995). Four rooms [Film]. A Band Apart.

Capra, F. (Director). (1946). It’s a wonderful life [Film]. Liberty Films.

Fleming, V. (Director). (1939). Gone with the wind [Film]. Selznick International Pictures; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

Gilliam, T. (Director). (1998). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas (Criterion Collection ed.) [Film; Blu-ray disc]. Rhino Films; Summit Entertainment.

Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1954). Shichinin no samurai [Seven samurai] [Film]. Toho.

Renoir, J. (Director). (1950). La règle du jeu [The rules of the game] [Film]. Nouvelle Éditions Française.


Documentary Film

Information Needed

  • Director(s)
  • Year of release
  • Film title - if non-English film, include both the title in the original language and the English version of title)
  • Format type - it is not incorrect to include the format type always; but it is necessary to include the format type if the format provides additional content, such as a DVD with commentary or extras.
  • Production company/companies


Flaherty, R. J. (Director). (1922). Nanook of the north [Film; documentary]. Pathé Exchange.

Morris, E. (Director). (1988). The thin blue line [Film; documentary]. Miramax Films.

Neville, M. (Director). (2018). Won’t you be my neighbor [Film; documentary]. Tremolo Productions; Impact Partners; Independent Lens.

Peck, R. (Director). (2016). I am not your Negro [Film; documentary DVD]. Velvet Film; Artemis Productions; Close Up Films.

Zhangke, J. (Director). (2020). Yí zhi yóu dào hǎi shuǐ biàn Ián [Swimming out till the sea turns blue] [Film; documentary]. Xstream Pictures.


Educational Film

Information Needed

  • Director(s)
  • Year of release
  • Film title - if non-English film, include both the title in the original language and the English version of title)
  • Format type - it is not incorrect to include the format type always; but it is necessary to include the format type if the format provides additional content, such as a DVD with commentary or extras.
  • Name of database or collection if film is only available through a specific database or collection
  • Production company/companies


Newman, R. D., & Nightingale, J. (Producers). (2012). Videofluoroscopic review of swallowing: Biomechanics, physiology, pathology [Film; educational DVD]. Vision Four Video; Plural Publishing.

McIlwain, C., Fisherkeller, J., Dietrich, E., & Benson, R. (Speakers). (2006). Qualitative research: Methods in the social sciences [Film; educational video]. SAGE Research Methods Video.

Prince, K. (Director). (2019). Some like it hip hop [Theatrical production recording]. ZooNation: The Kate Prince Company. Retrieved from Digital Theatre Plus.

Sartore, J. (Speaker). (2013). The art of travel photography: Six expert lessons [Film; educational DVD]. Teaching Company.


Television Series

Information Needed

  • Executive producer(s)
  • Years of production - if the series in ongoing, use the word "present" for the latter date
  • Title of television series - if non-English film, include both the title in the original language and the English version of title)
  • Production company/companies


Cho, H.-j., & Kim, S.-h. (Executive Producers). (2018-2019). Alhambeura goongjeonui chooeok [Memories of the Alhambra] [TV series]. Chorokbaem Media; Studio Dragon.

Kohan, J., Friedman, L, Hess, S., Herrmann, T., Vinnecour, L, Tannenbaum, N. K., & Burley, M. A. (Executive Producers). Orange is the new black [Netflix TV series]. Titled Productions; Lionsgate Television.

Maher, B. (Creator & Presenter). (2003-present). Real time with Bill Maher [TV series]. Bill Maher Productions; Grad Grey Television; Home Box Office.

Sheldon, L. (Executive Producer). (1961-1966). The Dick Van Dyke show [TV series]. Calvada Productions.


Television Episode

Information Needed

  • Writer(s) and Director(s)
  • Original air date
  • Episode Title 
  • Season number, episode number
  • Executive producer(s)
  • Title of television series - if non-English film, include both the title in the original language and the English version of title)
  • Season number, episode number
  • Production company/companies


Dueñas, M. (Writer), Grondona, A. (Writer), Rubio, S. L. (Writer), & Peñafiel, I. (Director). (2013, November 18). El sol siempre vuelve a salir (Season 1, Episode 5) [TV series episode]. In E. Pina & R. Baltanás (Executive Producers), El tiempo entre costuras [The time in between]. Boomerang TV; Atresmedia.

Parker, T. (Writer), Stone, M. (Writer), Goodman, D. R. (Writer), & Stough, E. (Director). (2001, July 11). Scott Tenorman must die [TV series episode]. In T. Parker, M. Stone, B. Graden, D. Liebling, F. C. Agnone, II, B. Howell, & A. Garefino (Executive Producers) South Park. Celluloid Studios; MTV Entertainment Studios; Comedy Parnters.

Williams, R. (Writer), & Bucksey, C. (Director). (2016, December 16). The road less traveled (Season 2, Episode 2) [Amazon Prime TV episode]. In R. Scott, F. Spotnitz, C. Baute, I. D. Hackett, S. Mackinnon, & C. Tricarico (Executive Producers), The man in the high castle. Amazon Studios; Scott Free Productions; Electric Shepherd Productions; Headline Pictures; Bight Light Productions; Picrow; Reunion Pictures.


TED Talk

Information Needed

If the TED Talk recording is found on YouTube, cite as a YouTube video (see examples below).

  • Speaker - or the entity posting the video if found on YouTube
  • Date - year and month if found on TED website or year, month, and day if found on YouTube
  • Title of talk - include the speaker's name if found on YouTube
  • URL 


Robinson, K. (2006, February). Do schools kill creativity? [Video]. TED Conferences.

TED. (2015, March 20). Monica Lewinski: The price of shame [Video]. YouTube.

TED. (2015, April 3). Bill Gates: The next outbreak? We’re not ready [Video]. YouTube.

Urban, T. (2016, February). Inside the mind of a master procrastinator [Video]. TED Conferences.



Information Needed

  • Name of person or entity posting the video (if known)
  • Screenname or username of entity posting the video
  • Date video was posted (year, month, day)
  • Title of video
  • URL


Drost, H. [Drost Video]. (2017, July 3). How to find your most watched YouTube videos [Video]. YouTube.

Ghate, J. (2020, April 16). How to paint big dot mandala step by step tutorial [Video]. YouTube.

Kjellberg, F. A. U. [PewDiePie]. (2021, November 5). People break their legs on purpose. Why? [Video]. YouTube.

Pinkfong Baby Shark – Kids’ Songs & Stories. (2016, June 17). Baby shark dance [Video]. YouTube.

University of Northern Colorado, University Libraries [UNCLibraries]. (2020, June 12]. APA style 7th edition: Formatting an APA style paper – student paper in Microsoft Word [Video]. YouTube.



Information Needed

  • Name of person or entity posting the video (if known)
  • Screenname or username of entity posting the video
  • Date video was posted (year, month, day)
  • Title of video
  • URL


Art Gallery of Western Australia. (n.d.). Hannah Gadsby at AGWA: E Phillips Fox [Video]. Vimeo.

Brass, M. (2011, August 12). Rocky Mountain National Park [Video]. Vimeo.

Montana Office of Tourism. (n.d.). Indian nations: Cippewa Cree [Video]. Vimeo.

Wolf, M. (2020, August 31). Another hayride [Video]. Vimeo.



If the Webinar recording is found on YouTube, cite as a YouTube video (see example below).

Information Needed

  • Speaker(s) - or the entity posting the video if found on YouTube
  • Date - year, month, day
  • Title of webinar
  • Name of entity responsible for recording/posting the webinar if not found on YouTube
  • URL 


Association of Clinicians for the Underserved. (2021, June 30). Managing in the time of COVID-19 & beyond – diversity, equity, & inclusion [Webinar]. YouTube.

Hess, D., Hunter, J., Ascher, A., & Bishop, T. (2021, September 1). Understanding the Initial Preventive Physical Examination (IPPE), the Annual Well Visit (AWV) and cognitive assessments and care plan services [Webinar]. Novitas Solutions.

McCartin, L. (2020, March 18). Prioritizing curriculum during emergency remote teaching [Webinar]. University of Northern Colorado, Center for the Enhancement of Teaching & Learning, Teaching, Learning & Assessment.

Pudewa, A. (2018, July 2). Strategies for winning the college writing game [Webinar]. Institute for Excellence in Writing.

Four Parts of a Reference Citation


  • An author can be one of the following or a combination of the following:
    • An single person,
    • Multiple people,
    • A group author (an institution or organization), or
    • Multiple group authors.
  • Look for whomever takes credit or responsibility for the information. 
  • If there is no individual or group author associated with the information, move the title into the place of author (before the date).


  • Generally, the date is
    • the copyright date or
    • the date of last update.
  • Do not use a copyright date from a website footer as this does not give any indication of when the information was written; if no other date is available, us the rules of no date.
  • For journal articles that have been accepted by a journal but not yet published, use the notation (In press). 
  • Use circa (abbreviated ca.) for approximate dates, as in (ca. 1930). 
  • If there is no date associated with the information, use the notation of n.d., for no date, as in (n.d.).


  • Titles include the titles of
    • entire standalone works (e.g., books, journals, albums, etc.) and
    • works that a part of a greater whole (e.g., book chapters, journal articles, songs, etc.).
  • For works that are not books, journal/journal articles, magazine/magazine articles, or newspaper/newspaper articles include a description of the type of work directly after the title and before ending punctuation inside square brackets.


  • Source information varies by type, format, and retrieval method of source. For example, a print newspaper article has different source information than an online book. See examples on this page and the Publication Manual (pp.293-301).
Government Report

Information Needed

  • Author(s)
    • Generally a group author, but may be a mix of group and individual authors
  • Date of publication
  • Title of report
  • Report number or designation (sometimes an alphanumeric code)
  • Publisher name or organization (if different than the author)
  • URL - if an online report


Government Report Online

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, April). HIV infection, risk, prevention, and testing behaviors among transgender women (HIV Surveillance Report No. 27).

Department of Regulatory Agencies & Department of Health Care Policy and Financing. (2019, November 15). Final report for Colorado’s public opinion. State of Colorado.

Internet Crime Complaint Center. (n.d.). 2020 internet crime report. Federal Bureau of Investigation.

United States International Trade Commission. (2019, April). U.S.-Mexico-Canada Trade Agreement: Likely impact on the U.S. economy and specific industry sectors (Report 4889 TPA 105-003).


Government Report Print

Colorado Department of Human Services. (1999, March 1). Assessment of community consolidated child care pilot program: Technical report submitted to the Colorado General Assembly.

Harmon, K. R. (1986, February). Telecommunications study for Colorado libraries: Executive summary report. Colorado Department of Education.

United States General Accounting Office. (1991, June). Professional military education at the four intermediate service schools: Report to the Chairman, Panel on Military Education, Committee on the Armed Services, House of Representatives (GAO/NSAID-91-182). Department of Defense.

Visher, M. G., & Hudis, P. M. (1999, October). Aiming high: Strategies to promote high standards in high schools – interim report. New American High Schools; U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education.



Information Needed

  • Principal investigator
  • Year grant begins
  • Year grant ends
  • Title of grant
  • Grant number (if there is one)
  • Granting agency
  • URL - if grant abstract is online


Berg, M. (Principal Investigator). (2021-2022). Graduate content literacy for diverse learners, EDRD 515 [Grant]. University of Northern Colorado OER Committee.

Burns, P. (Principal Investigator). (2021-2025). Influence of fish oil on corpus luteum function (Grant No. 2021-67016-33839) [Grant]. United States Department of Agriculture.

Cheung, P. W. (Principal Investigator). (2018-2021). Characterization of novel signaling pathways involved in water balance disorders (Project No. 3K08DK115901-03S1) [Grant]. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

Mayer, J. (Principal Investigator). (2018-2019). OER awareness and infrastructure building at the University of Northern Colorado [Grant]. Colorado Department of Higher Education.

Grey Literature


A Casual Definition

Grey literature basically refers to the wealth of information sources that are not published through traditional publishing houses. This basically includes any information source that is not a book, journal, magazine, or newspaper.

Grey Literature includes materials that are generally

  • not published commercially and/or
  • not generally accessible and
  • can include ephemera
An Official Definition

According to the Twelfth International Conference on Grey Literature, the definition is as follows:

"Grey literature stands for manifold document types produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in print and electronic formats that are protected by intellectual property rights, of sufficient quality to be collected and preserved by libraries and institutional repositories, but not controlled by commercial publishers; i.e., where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body" (for more information see Towards a Prague Definition of Grey Literature - PDF).

APA & Grey Literature
Any and all information sources can be cited in APA Style - from annual reports to yearbooks.

...paintings, pamphlets, patents, patient care sheets, plans, podcasts, post cards, posters, practice guidelines, policies, PowerPoints, preprints, press release, Prezis, proceedings...

Determining How to Cite Grey Literature

  1. Check the Reference Citations on this Guide.
  2. Consult the Publication Manual 7th Edition.
  3. Consult the APA Style Blog.
  4. Find another source that asks has the same type of citation information (for instance, an annual report is much like an ebook). If the format/type of the information source helps readers in finding the source, include it in the reference citation directly after the title in square brackets. For example:
    • Investing for life [Brochure].
    • How to create online continuing education classes [Webinar].
Examples of Grey Literature
  • Abstract
  • Anatomical model
  • Annual report
  • Answer key
  • Apparatus and data file
  • Artifact
  • Audio file
  • Blog comment
  • Blog post
  • Blu-ray disc
  • Blueprint
  • Book review
  • Brochure
  • CD recording
  • Conference presentation
  • Committee report
  • Computer software
  • Data file
  • Database record
  • Dataset
  • Demographic map
  • DVD
  • Electronic mailing list comment
  • Email
  • Facebook page
  • Facebook post
  • Fact sheet
  • Grant
  • Guidelines
  • Leaflet
  • Lecture notes
  • Letter to the editor
  • Manual
  • Manuscript
  • Measurement instrument
  • Memo
  • Mission statement
  • Mobile application software
  • Motion picture
  • mp3 file
  • mp4 file
  • Newsletter
  • Online forum comment
  • Organizational standards
  • Painting
  • Patent
  • Photograph
  • Physiological specimens
  • Podcast
  • Podcast transcript
  • Policy documents
  • Policy statements
  • Post-print
  • Poster
  • PowerPoint presentation
  • PowerPoint slides
  • Practice guidelines
  • Preprint
  • Press release
  • Prezi presentation
  • Product catalog
  • Program
  • Questionnaire
  • Research notes
  • Research proposal
  • Scientific protocol
  • Sculpture
  • Speech
  • Syllabus
  • Tape recording
  • Television series episode
  • Television series webisode
  • Topographic map
  • Transcript
  • Tweet
  • Twitter update
  • Video file

Journal Article

with DOI • Print Version • with URL • in Library Databases • with Article Number 
with Page Numbers • Advance Online Publication • In Press

Needed Information

  • Author(s)
  • Year of Publication
  • Title of Article
  • Title of Journal
  • Volume Number
  • Issue Number
  • Page Numbers or Article Number
  • DOI or URL


Journal Articles with DOI

Freeze, J. G., Kelly, H. R., & Batista, V. S. (2019). Search for catalysts by inverse design: Artificial intelligence, mountain climbers, and alchemists. Chemical Reviews, 119(11), 6595-6612.

Katada, S. N. (2013). Financial crisis fatigue? Politics behind Japan’s post-global financial crisis economic contractions. Japanese Journal of Political Science, 14(2), 223-242.

Parsons, S. (2009). Sontag’s lament: Emotions, ethics, and photography. Photography and Culture, 2(3), 289-302.

Journal Articles Print Version

If a journal article that you view the original print version of includes a DOI, use that DOI in the citation (see examples above). It the print article you access does not have a DOI, cite as below.

Meeker, M. (2001). Behind the mask of respectability: Reconsidering the Mattachine Society and male homophile practice, 1950s and 1960s. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 10(1), 78-116.

Wechsler, H., Lee, J. E., Kuo, M., & Lee, H. (2000). College binge drinking in the 1990s: A continuing problem – results of the Harvard School of Public Health 1999 college alcohol study. College Health, 48(5), 199-2010.

Wester, F. R. (1953). A technique for the measurement of race attitudes. American Sociological Review, 18(1), 73-78.

Journal Articles with URL

Only cite an article with a URL if it is found online and is not found in a library database nor has a DOI.
If the URL is long and cumbersome, use a URL shortener (such as to create a shorter URL.

Hopsicker, P. M. (2014). Racing to death: The not-so-ordinary happenings of the 1932 Lake Placid Olympic bobsled events. Journal of Sport History, 41(1), 73-93.

Moskalik, T., Borz, S. A., Dvořák, J., Ferencik, M., Glushkov, S., Muiste, P., Lazdiņš, A., & Styranivsky, O. (2017). Timber harvesting methods in Eastern European countries: A review. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 38(2), 231-241. 

Rashidi, Z., Azadbakht, M., Amini, A., & Karimi, I. (2014). Timber harvesting methods in Eastern European countries: A Review. Cell Journal, 15(4), 282-293.

Journal Articles in Library Databases

Cite articles accessed in or retrieved from library databases that have a DOI with the DOI (see examples above).
Cite articles accessed in or retrieved from library databases without a DOI as a print journal article (see examples above).

Journal Articles with Article Number

More and more online journals are assigning article numbers instead of page numbers. If both an article number and page numbers are assigned to an article, the reference citation should include only the article number, while the text citation cites the specific page number (if appropriate).  

Cucuzzella, C., Chupin, J.-P., & Hammond, C. (2020). Eco-didacticism in art and architecture: Design as means for raising awareness. Cities, 102, Article 102728.

Rothan, H. A., & Byrareddy, S. N. (2020). The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Journal of Autoimmunity, 109, Article 102433.

Urada, L. A., Rusakova, M., Odinokova, V., Tsuyuki, K., Raj, A., & Silverman, J. G. (2019). Sexual exploitation as a minor, violence, and HIV/STI risk among women trading sex in St. Petersburg and Orenburg, Russia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(22), Article 4343.

Journal Articles with Page Numbers

Meadwell, J., Paxman-Clarke, L., Terris, D., & Ford, P. (2019). In search of a performing seal: Rethinking the design of tight-fitting respiratory protective equipment facepieces for users with facial hair. Safety and Health at Work, 10(3), 275-304.

Taddei, C., Zhou, B., Bixby, H., Carrillo-Larco, R. M., Danaei, G., Jackson, R. T., Farzadfar, F., Sophiea, M. K., Di Cesaire, M., Caminia lurilli, M. L., Rodriguez Martinez, A., Ashgari, G., Dhana, K., Gulayin, P., Kakarmath, S., Santero, M., Voortman, Riley, L. M., Cowan, M. J.,…Ezzati, M. (2020). Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol. Nature, 582(7810), 73-77.

Zhong, Y.-P., Shen, X.-T., Ying, Y., Wu, H.-T., Li, J., Qi, Q., Zhou, C.-Q., & Zhuang, G.-L. (2012). Impact of transitory hyperprolactinemia on clinical outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Journal of Medical Biochemistry, 31(1), 27-33.

Journal Articles, Advance Online Publication

Articles that are advance online publication are manuscripts that have been accepted, reviewed, and proofed by a journal and in their final form. They are articles that are published online ahead of the print edition being published, so no volume number, issue number, or page/article number is assigned yet. Most advance online publication articles will include a link that checks for updates, because while they article is likely in its final format, if the journal or the author catches any mistakes, it could be updated. Just like in press articles, it is important to note when citing an advanced online publication, because it alerts readers to the version that was accessed.

Esposito, E., Li, W., Mandeville, E. T., Park, J.-H., Şencan, I., Guo, S., Shi, J., Lan, J., Hayakawa, K., Sakadžić, S., Ji, X., & Lo, E. H. (2020). Potential circadian effects on translational failure for neuroprotection. Nature. Advance online publication.

Jose, K., MacDonald, F., Vandenberg, M., Williams, J., Abbott-Chapman, J., Venn, A., & Smith, K. J. (2020). School breakfast club programs in Australian primary schools, not just addressing food insecurity: A qualitative study. Health Education & Behavior. Advance online publication.

Rűber, I. E., & Janmaat, J. G. (2020). Does participation in adult education increase volunteering? An analysis of British longitudinal data. Adult Education Quarterly. Advance online publication.

Journal Articles in Press

In press articles are also called Journal Pre-Proofs.

In press articles are articles are manuscripts that have been submitted to and accepted by a journal, but are still in the process of final production; therefore, it is possible mistakes are included in this version of the article that will be caught and corrected before the final version. It is important to note in citation when working with an in press article, so that the reader knows the version of the article any information came from. Not all journals put in press articles online for others to see. It is generally journals in the sciences that offer access to articles before the final version is completed. In general, in press articles will not have a volume, issue, or page numbers; they may or may not be assigned a DOI.

Lai, C.-C., Wang, C.-Y., Ko, W.-C., & Hsueh, P.-R. (in press). In vitro diagnostics of coronavirus disease 2019: Technologies and application. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection.     

Leckcivilize, A., & Struab, A. (in press). Your wingman could help you land a job: How beauty composition of applicants affects the call-back probability. Labour Economics.     

Narushin, V.G., Romanov, M.N., & Griffin, D.K. (in press). A novel egg quality index as an alternative to haugh unit score. Journal of Food Engineering.       undefined

Magazine Articles

Magazine Article Print Version • Magazine Article from Library Database 
Magazine Article on Open Web


Information Needed

  • Author(s)
    • If no author is listed, move the magazine article title into the place of the author
  • Date of publication
  • Title of article
  • Title of magazine
  • Volume, issue, and page numbers
    • Volume, issue, and page numbers are often not available for online magazine articles; if they are not available omit the numbers
    • Magazine articles are not always on sequential page numbers; if an article appears non-sequentially give the first page or page range followed by a comma followed by the second page or page range, and so on
  • URL - for online magazine articles


Magazine Article Print Version

Malcolm, J. (2018, October 29). Six glimpses of the past: Photography and memory. The New Yorker, 94(34), 18-26.

Shah, S., & El-Sayed, A. (2022, January). Medical algorithms need better regulations. Scientific American, 326(1), 10-11.

Spradley, N. (2016, December). Strokes of genius. Essence, 47(8), 45-46, 48, 50.

What you should know about AirPods. (2022, March). Consumer Reports, 87(3), 14-15.

Magazine Article in Library Database

Cite as a print magazine article (examples above).

Magazine Article on Open Web

Berinato, S. (2022, January-February). When people listen to happy songs, the market outperforms. Harvard Business Review.

Boyes, A., Esposito, L., Gillihan, S., & Leyba, E. (2021, May 4). The high cost of calm. Psychology Today.

Faber, T. (Author), Lai, A. (Photographer), & Tao, K. (Stylist). (2022, March 15). David Erritzoe: On the mind-bending potential of psychedelics. Kinfold, 43.

Howley, E. K. (2021, June 4). COVID-19 vaccines for children: Timing, side effects and more. U.S. News & World Report.

News Site

If citing a new source from a newspaper, magazine, blog, or video site like YouTube, see examples under these types of sources. For news sources on websites such as ABC News, CBS News, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, NBC News, NPR, Reuters, Salon, Vox, etc., site as examples given below.

Information Needed

  • Author(s)
    • If there is no author, move the title of the news article before the date element.
  • Date of publication
  • Title of article
  • News site name
  • URL 


News Site - Article with Author(s)

Fulcher, M. P. (2022, March 20). Boulder prepares to mark a painful milestone – a year since the King Soopers Shooting. CPR News.

Karanth, S. (2022, March 16). 1 year after Atlanta spa shootings, Asian American women still face hate and violence. HuffPost.

Sneed, T., & de Vogue, A. (2022, March 21). What Ketanji Brown Jackson might be grilled about her Supreme Court confirmation hearings. CNN.

Thrash, R. (2022, March 21). 2 Pennsylvania troopers hit by a car and killed as they helped man on interstate, police say. CBSNews.

Website, Author and Publisher Are Same

Chinese Boeing jet crashes in mountains with 132 on board, no sign of survivors. (2022, March 21). Reuters.

Marine pilot killed in Osprey crash in Norway was a native on Leominster. (2022, March 21). WCVB Boston.

Newspaper Articles

Newspaper Article Print Version • Newspaper Article from Library Database 
Newspaper Article on Open Web

Information Needed

  • Author(s) - if no author is listed, move the newspaper article title into the place of the author
  • Date of publication
  • Title of article
    • If citing something without a title (such as an advertisement), write a description of the piece inside square brackets.
  • Title of newspaper
    • If the title of newspaper lends itself to ambiguity (such as a common title such as The Daily Sentinel) place the city and state of the newspaper in square brackets after the title of the newspaper.
  • Page numbers
    • Page numbers are often not available for online newspaper articles; if they are not available omit them
    • Newspaper articles are not always on sequential pages; if an article appears non-sequentially give the first page or page range followed by a comma followed by the second page or page range, and so on
  • URL - for online newspaper articles


Newspaper Article Print Version

Coyotes around Nunn numerous and bold. (1916, May 10). Greeley Daily Tribune, 6.

Hindi, S. (2018, May 3). Defense lawyer releases video from body camera. Fort Collins Coloradoan, A1, A3.

Klomhaus, S. (2022, February 10). Assessment finds Mesa County is lacking in available child care. The Daily Sentinel [Grand Junction, Colorado], A3.

[Advertisement for Saks & Company women’s wraps, capes, and coat sale with prices]. (1920, May 11). The New York Times, 5.

Newspaper Article in Library Database

Cite as a print newspaper article (examples above).

Newspaper Article on Open Web

Carlson, M. (2022, January 2). Betty White obituary. The Guardian.

Casanova, S., & Sweeney, A. (2021, July 28). Violence spike of 2020 widened familiar safety gap between city neighborhoods, University of Chicago Crime Lab analysis shows. Chicago Tribune.

Dickerson, B. (2022, March 16). Opinion: Zelenskyy is the leader of the free world now. Detroit Free Press.

Kafer, K. (2021, November 17). Denver talk show host is in hot water for false election fraud claims. The Denver Post.

Personal Communications

Emails • Text Messages • Private Letters • Online Chats • Direct Messages • Memos 
Telephone Conversations • Unrecorded Classroom Lectures 
Personal Conference Notes • Live Speeches 

Personal communications are only cited with an In-Text Citation.
Do not give a Reference Citation.

Personal Communications are unpublished information sources that are not recoverable by the greater population (readers). For published communications, use the corresponding published format for citation examples (i.e., for letters published in a book, cite a book; personal communications may be published in journal articles, books, book chapters, blogs, websites, et cetera).

Information Needed

  • Name of the person the information came from
  • Date of the communication - Month, Day and Year
  • If possible, give context within your writing as to the type of source you are citing (compare the Letter example - where context is given - with the Memo Letter, in which no context is given)



  • Parenthetical In-Text Citation: (R. J. Rymill, personal communication, January 12, 1936)
  • Narrative In-Text Citation: R. J. Rymill (personal communication, January 12, 1936)

In a letter written by Wyoming State Senator Robert J. Rymill (personal communication, January 12, 1936) to his brother W. L. Rymill, the senator stated, “Serving on city and county school boards is the most successful avenue to changing education."


  • Parenthetical In-Text Citation: (C. Okafor, personal communication, July 7, 2017)
  • Narrative In-Text Citation: C. Okafor (personal communication, July 7, 2017)

Chief Operating Officer Cecelia Okafor (personal communication, July 7, 2017advised the Board of Trustees of the necessity of managing human capital costs and cross-training efforts.

Conversation (Personal)

  • Parenthetical In-Text Citation: (C. Myers, personal communication, June 10, 2017)
  • Narrative In-Text Citation: C. Myers (personal communication, June 10, 2017)

One presenter, at a recent copyright conference, stated, “My best advice regarding the amount used is to consider the amount needed to serve the purpose in relation to the work being used” (C. Myers, personal communication, June 10, 2017).

Text Message

The following example is for a text message from an unknown source. Generally, the author of a text message is known and both Parenthetical and Narrative In-Text Citations will include the author's name.

  • Parenthetical In-Text Citation: (personal communication, May 27, 2020)

A text message sent from an unknown source (personal communication, May 27, 2020) stated, "Some who came into contact with you tested positive or has shown symptoms for COVID-19 & recommends you self-isolate/get tested." Cable News Network (CNN, 2020) later reported that individuals across the United States received the same or similar text messages that including a link that - if activated - downloaded malware onto the recipient's computer.


  • Parenthetical In-Text Citation: (G. Hampson, personal communication, April 20, 2020)
  • Narrative In-Text Citation: G. Hampson (personal communication, April 20, 2020)

In an email, G. Hampson (personal communication, April 20,2020) expressed his opinion on commercial (for-profit) entities' involvement in open access as follows:

I think we can build a very effective future on this common ground instead of continuing along the path where we divide our community into those whose motives are “pure,” and those who also look to do this work in a sustainable business manner.

Classroom Lecture (Unrecorded)

  • Parenthetical In-Text Citation: (S. P. Mackessy, personal communication, January 21, 2020)
  • Narrative In-Text Citation: S. P. Mackessy (personal communication, January 21, 2020)

During a session of a human anatomy course at the University of Northern Colorado, Professor S. P. Mackessy (personal communication, January 21,2020) referenced a forensic investigation in which snake venom was used as a poison in the death of a two-year-old.

A note on keeping a personal Dark Archive
for Personal Communications used in research.

The Society of American Archivists defines a Dark Archive as "a repository that stores archival resources for future use but is accessible only to its custodian" or a "collection of materials preserved for future use but with no current access."

Generally, a Dark Archive is not necessary or advisable for student papers; however, for theses, dissertations, and formally published works, a Dark Archive of Personal Communications is recommended. Thus, if you cite an email in a journal article, keep that email so that if anyone asks you about the information in the email or questions the veracity of the information, you still have that information accessible.


Podcast Series

Information Needed

  • Host(s)
  • Years of Podcast Activity - this will generally be a range of years; the beginning year is the year in which the first episode was produced and the last year is the year in which the last year of the podcast was produced; if the podcast is still producing episodes, the latter part of the date range is noted as 'present'
  • Title of Podcast
  • Type of Podcast - audio or video
  • Production Company
  • URL


DJ Envy, Yee, A., & Charlamagne tha God (Hosts). (2010-present). The breakfast club [Audio podcast]. iHeartRadio.

Rogan, J. (Hosts). (2009-present). The Joe Rogan experience [Video podcast]. Spotify.

Shepard, D., & Padman, M. (Hosts). (2018-present). Armchair expert with Dax Shepard [Audio podcast]. Simplecast.

Podcast Episode

Information Needed

  • Host(s)
  • Date of Episode (Year, Month Day)
  • Title of Episode
  • Type of Podcast
  • Title of Podcast
  • Production Company
  • URL - if the episode is accessed through an app, the URL can be omitted)


Abumrad, J. (Host). (2019, November 19). The only one for me, Jolene [Audio podcast episode]. In Dolly Parton’s America. WNYC Studios.

Eagan, D. (Host). (2021, April 2). Elevators: Terror and death in a 6 by 6 foot box (No. 3) [Audio podcast episode]. In Strange and unexplained. Obsessed Network.

Ko, C., & Miller, N. (Hosts). (2021, December 9). Matt Damon ruins your Saturday (No. 217) [Video podcast episode]. In Tiny meat game podcast. TMG Studios.

Presentation Slide Deck

Information Needed

  • Author(s)
    • If no author is given, move the title of the slide deck to the first element position in the citation.
  • Date of publication or update
    • If no date is given, use n.d. in place of a date to indicate "no date"
    • For various online slide software, it may be necessary to to figure out where this information is located (for example, for Google Slides select File>>Document Details which gives the creation date for the Google slide deck)
  • Title of slide deck
  • Publisher or host website
  • URL 
    • If the slide deck is behind a firewall (e.g., Canvas, Blackboard, a company intranet) and the main audience of the slide deck is within the organization that has access to materials behind the firewall, provide the name of the platform and the URL of the platform sign-on page.
    • If the slide deck is behind a firewall and the main audience does NOT have access to materials behind the firewall, cite the slide deck as a personal communication.


Davenport, B. (2015, May 17). 20 stress-free ways to declutter your home [Slides]. SlideShare.

Denny, M. (2021, April 20). Setting writing goals & staying motivated [Google slides]. Google.

Mayer, J., & Webber, N. (2017, November 9). Showcase your impact as an author/creator and tell your research story [PowerPoint slides]. University of Northern Colorado Scholarship & Creative works @ Digital UNC.

Wei, L. (n.d.). Multilingualism, social cognition, and creativity [PowerPoint slides]. Stony Brook University.

Wiegand, S. (2018, Fall). Asking an answerable question, part III [Slides]. University of Northern Colorado Canvas Learning Management System.

Yohe, E. (2021, February 25). What you need to know about paid leave law [Slides]. Colorado Department of Labor and Employment.

Research Instrument

Research instruments are sometimes referred to as tests. They are scales, inventories, questionnaires, and measurement tools used to collect data.

Information Needed

  • Author(s)
    • Individual(s) and/or Group(s)
  • Year of publication/release/posting
    • If no year is associated with the instrument, give the notation for no date (n.d.)
  • Title of the instrument
    • If no title is associated with the instrument, give a description of the instrument in square brackets
  • Version or edition
    • If given
  • Publisher, if available
  • Database name, if citing at database record
  • DOI or URL, if available


Manual for Research Instrument

Kerby, M. L. (1980). Kerby learning modality test: Manual (Rev. Ed.). Western Psychological Services.

Messer, B., & Harter, S. (2012). The self-perception profile for adults: Manual and questionnaires. University of Denver, Department of Psychology.

Sanders, C. M., Mauger, P. A., & Strong, P. N., Jr. (1984). Grief experience inventory: Manual. Consulting Psychologists Press.

Research Instrument - Test, Scale, Questionnaire

Alliance for the Study of School Climate. (n.d.). School climate assessment instrument (SCAI): Elementary teacher version (Version 2016 7.2.3). California State University-Los Angeles.

American Chronic Pain Association. (n.d.). Quality of life scale: A measure of function for people with pain.

Cohen, S. (n.d.). Perceived stress scale: 10 item.

Mart, E. G. (2011). The practical assessment of testamentary capacity and undue influence in the elderly. Professional Resource Express.

Database Record for Research Instrument

Mind Garden. (1977). Ways of coping questionnaire [Database record]. CINAHL Plus with Full Text.

Peterson, J. C. (2016). Stress management questionnaire (Rev. Ed.) [Database record]. Mental Measurements Yearbook with Tests in Print.

Zeitlin, S, Williamson, G. G., & Szczepanski, M. (n.d.). Early coping inventories: A measure of adaptive behavior, observation and self-rated forms [Database record]. PsycTESTS.

Social Media

Facebook • DeviantArt • Instagram • LinkedIn • Twitter • and many more...

Social Media defined by Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary: Forms of electronic communication (such as websites for social networking and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (such as videos).

Social Media defined by Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary: Forms of electronic communication (such as websites for social networking and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (such as videos).

Cite social media information only when it is original information. For example, if a Facebook post links you to an article on the UNICEF website, site only the UNICEF site and not the Facebook post; however, if the Facebook post offers original information, such as a Facebook post by a parent expressing the need for face mask exemptions for students in primary school, this is original information and you cite the Facebook post.

Information Needed

  • Author - Real name, screenname, username
  • Date - Day, month, and year
  • Title
    • Regular title
    • Content of the post up to the first 20 words
    • If audiovisuals, give the type of audiovisual in square brackets 
  • Site or platform title
  • URL - if the content is changing and updating (such as on a wiki) give the retrieval date


For examples of citing YouTube and TikTok videos, see .


Red Dirt in My Soul. (2020, July 26). National Day of the Cowboy! Around here we're all cowboys at times... [Image attached]. Facebook.     Text Citation Examples

University of Wyoming. (2020, July 26). Here at the University of Wyoming we know that being a Cowboy is much more than the traditional definition [Image attached]. Facebook.     Text Citation Examples

Wyoming Game and Fish Department. (2020, June 2). The big game migrations in Wyoming are quite a spectacle [Video]. Facebook.     Text Citation Examples


CNeko-chan. (2020, March 19). Thank you [Image attached]. DeviantArt.     Text Citation Examples

Lavrov, A. [AlexLavrov]. (2020, March 19). The details [Image attached]. DeviantArt.     Text Citation Examples

TessAzalea. (2020, June 14). Growth [Image attached]. DeviantArt.     Text Citation Examples


Butko, B. [lincoln_highway]. (2020, August 20). A derecho storm with winds up to 140 mph has devastated Iowa, damaging or destroying 13 million acres of crops [Photograph]. Instagram.

National Portrait Gallery [nationalportraitgallery]. (2022, February 16). Today's #portraitoftheday is none other than Oscar Wilde [Photograph]. Instagram.

University of Northern Colorado [unc_colorado]. (2022, February 10). Great careers start in bear country. Yours can too! Network with alumni working in careers you want to pursue [Video].


Feinstein, A. (n.d.). Home [LinkedIn page]. Retrieved March 7, 2022, from

Morse, A. (2022, March 5). It was great having Sara Frederic of Mississippi State University join us in our University of Northern Colorado of sport [Image attached] [Post]. LinkedIn.

University of Northern Colorado. (2021, May 7). UNC track and field student-athlete and new grad Armanni Portee '21 connected with alumnus and former football player Jonathan Martin [Video attached] [Post]. LinkedIn. 


Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2022, March 3). The Ukrainian people need our help. If you're looking for a way to make a difference, here are some organizations [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Musk, E. [@elonmusk]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved March 8, 2022,

Rocky Mountain National Park [@RockyNPS]. (2015, November 17). The next time someone tells you to take a hike, head to #RMNP! #TakeAHikeDay [Image attached] [Tweet].

Woodson, J. [@JackieWoodson]. (2022, March 4). This happened tonight. #HansChristianAndersenMedal 'for the most distinguished contribution to international children's literature' #IBBY2022 [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Student Work

Action Research Projects • Capstones • Dissertations 
Master's Theses • Undergraduate Honors Theses

Published student work refers to students works that are available online through a commercial database (such as ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, through an institutional repository (such as Scholarship & Creative Works @ Digital UNC), on a personal website, or other source. Unpublished student work refers to student works that are kept by a university but are only available in print.

Information Needed

  • Author
  • Year of publication
  • Title of work
  • Type of work
  • Name of institution awarding an associated degree
  • If published: name of database, institutional repository, archive, or website
  • If published, but not in a commercial database: URL


Action Research Project

Felder, A. (2020). The impact of research workbooks on assessment [Action research project, University of Northern Colorado]. Scholarship & Creative Works @ Digital UNC.

Fiumara, D. A. (2016). The effects of motivational strategies to increase teachers' commitment and enthusiasm [Action research project, St. Catherine University]. Sophia, the St. Catherine University Repository.

Mousel, S. (2006). Bad medicine: Homework or headache? Responsibility and accountability for middle level mathematics students [Action research project, University of Nebraska Lincoln]. DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska-Lincoln.


Senn, K. (2018). Evidence-based tuberculosis screening and testing clinical protocol for public health and primary care providers [Doctoral capstone, University of Northern Colorado]. Scholarship & Creative Works @ Digital UNC.

Wu, T. (2019). Give me a good reason: Exploring tightness-looseness as a framework for norms-nudges [Master's capstone, University of Pennsylvania]. ScholarlyCommons.

Doctoral Dissertation

Beaumont, E. (2004). An empirical study of family group visitors to a millennium art gallery in the UK (Publication No. 2561899289) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Salford]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Becker, D. (2021). From babysitting to teaching - Latina childcare providers acquiring effective teaching strategies: A grounded theory of transformative professional development [Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado]. Scholarship & Creative Works @ Digital UNC.

DeFries Gallagher, A. (2021). A qualitative analysis of the recommended implementation and replication of the cure violence model according to New York City and Chicago program staff interviews [Doctoral dissertation, Johns Hopkins University]. JScholarship.

Lebsack, R. R. (1976). Identifying facilitative characteristics of major advisers by normative judgment analysis [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Northern Colorado.

Williams, K. J. (2018). The structure of models of second-order set theories [Doctoral dissertation, City University of New York]. Kameryn J. Williams.

Master's Thesis

Baretta, M. (2021). Exploring communication strategies used by speech-language pathologists and nursing professionals prior to and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic [Master's thesis, University of Northern Colorado]. Scholarship & Creative Works @ Digital UNC.

Gallagher, W. J. (1990). The effect of altitude induced hypoxia on visual evoked potentials [Unpublished master's thesis]. University of Northern Colorado.

Han, M. N. (1994). State succession by Ukraine: Territories and armed forces from the former USSR [Master's thesis, Central Michigan University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Undergraduate Honors Thesis

Ardovino, A. (2013). Heroes of rock: A design post mortem exploring the video game design process as it relates to player satisfaction [Undergraduate honors thesis, University of Utah]. USpace Institutional Repository.

Brown, S. A. (2021). Understanding how high levels of noise affect the equine auditory system [Undergraduate honors thesis, University of Northern Colorado]. Scholarship & Creative Works @ Digital UNC.

Chuor, B. N. (2018). Asian-American political participation: The consequences of social invisibility and political alienation [Senior honors thesis, University of Houston]. University of Houston Institutional Repository.

UpToDate Database

Information Needed


Chou, R. (2022). Subacute and chronic low back pain: Nonsurgical interventional treatment. UpToDate. Retrieved February 1, 2022, from

Cohen, P. (2022). COVID-19: Outpatient evaluation and management of acute illness in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved March 5, 2022, from

Thurber, C. A., & Walton, E. (2022). Homesickness. UpToDate. Retrieved March 17, 2022, from

Visual Works

Artwork in Museum • Artwork on Museum Website
• Clip Art, Illustration, Stock Image, & Vector Image Exhibition • in Library Databases • Infographic
 • Installation • Map • Mixed Media  Painting • Photograph • Sculpture • Slides

Needed Information

  • Author(s), Designer(s), Creator(s), Curator(s)
    • If no author is listed, move the title of the work of art into the place of the author (before the date).
  • Date of creation, installation, publication
  • Title
    • If citing a work of art without a title, write a description of the piece inside square brackets in place of the title element.
  • Type of art/format
  • Location of work
    • Include building if appropriate
    • Generally includes city, state, nation
    • If visual work is found in a database, give the database name instead
  • URL
    • If the visual work was viewed in place, do not give a URL
    • If the visual work was viewed online (such as through a museum website or through a database) give the URL
    • If the visual work was viewed through a proprietary database, give the homepage of the database instead of a direct URL to the work within the database


Artwork in Museum

Birritjama, D. (n.d.). Cat and crow legend [Painting]. Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Escher, M. C. (1935). Hand with reflecting sphere [Lithograph]. Detroit Institute of Arts Museum, Detroit, MI, United States.

Savage, E. (1796). The Washington family [Painting]. National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, United States.

Kestrel, S. (1989). Spectre of ancient pathways [Sculpture]. Benson Sculpture Garden, Loveland, CO, United States.

Russin, R. (1959). Abraham Lincoln memorial monument [Sculpture]. Summit Rest Area, Interstate 80, WY, United States.

Weimer, D. (2004). Northern vision [Sculpture]. University of Northern Colorado University Center, Greeley, CO, United States.

Artwork on Museum Website

Ducrollay, J. (1744). Snuff box [Object]. The Wallace Collection, London, United Kingdom.

Macalister, M. (1966). Victim [Sculpture]. Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, Auckland, New Zealand.

Meucci, A. (ca. 1825). Mrs. Pierre Toussaint [Painting]. New York Historical Society Museum & Library, New York, NY, United States.

Vigée Le Brun, L.-É. (1780). La paix ramenant l’abondance [Peace bringing abundance] [Painting]. The Louvre, Paris, France.

Artwork in Library Database

Bourke-White, M. (1936). Wind tunnel construction, Fort Peck Dam, Montana [Photograph]. ArtStor.

Donald Trump – make America hate again. [Political sticker]. (2015-2016). ArtStor.

Murakami, T., & Louis Vuitton Design House. (2003). Bag (iid-bfl-141508) [Purse]. Bloomsbury Fashion Central.

Oscar de la Renta. (ca. 1984). Dress (iid-bfl-141595) [Clothing]. Bloomsbury Fashion Central.

Clip Art, Illustration, Stock Image, & Vector Image

bniique. (2021, June 2]. [Photograph of close-up of eye with reflection of window]. Pixabay.

Boulart, G. (1877). Exocoetus volitans [Illustration]. Wikimedia Commons.

grmarcstock. (n.d.). Diversity skins of black women and men cartoons [Vector image]. Vecteezy.

Prado, L. (2019, October 24). Dancer [Clip art]. The Noun Project.


Crooks, J. (Curator). (2021, September 1-2022, February 21). Fragments of epic memory [Exhibition; Photographs]. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Mangat, T. H. (Artist). (2021, October 8-2022, April 23). Capturing the moment: Works by Terrie Mangat [Exhibition; Quilts]. International Quilt Museum at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, United States.

Oliver, V. C. (Curator). (2021, November 5-2022, February 6). The dirty south: Contemporary art, material culture, and the sonic impulse [Exhibition; Mixed media]. Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, TX, United States.


Bernander, P. (n.d.). Social capital and global health: What trusting relationships tell us about the global burden of disease [Infographic].

Cash, I. (n.d.). Infographic of infographics [Infographic].

León, W., Martinez, J. D., Ramos, C., Saab, Z., & Pacific Rubiales Energy. (2013). History of life as we know it [Infographic]. Bēhance.


Beuys, J. (1983-1985). The end of the Twentieth Century [Installation]. Tate Modern, Bankside London, United Kingdom.

Christo. (2021, September 18-October 3). L’Arc de Triomphe, wrapped [Installation]. L’Arc de Triomphe, Paris, France.

Cummins, P., & Piper, T. (2014, July-November). Blood swept lands and seas of red [Installation]. Tower of London, London, United Kingdom.

Kusama, Y. (2013). Infinity mirrored room – the souls of millions of light years [Installation]. The Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Clark, W., & Lewis, S. (1814). A map of Lewis and Clark’s track, across the western portion of North America from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean by order of the executive on the United States [Map]. Wikipedia.

Google Maps. (n.d.). [Terrain map of Pawnee Buttes Trailhead in Colorado]. Retrieved March 24, 2022,

Humphreys, A. A., & Egloffstein, F. W. (1858). Rio Colorado of the West (No.2) [Map]. Library of Congress Geography and Map Division, Washington, DC, United States.

International Gay & Lesbian Aquatics. (2020, December). Sexual orientation laws in the world: From criminalisation of consensual same-sex sexual acts between adults to protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation [Map]. Retrieved from

National Geospatial Technical Operations Center. (2022, March 14). US topo 7.5-minute map for Clarkville SE, CO [Map]. United States Geological Survey.

United States Forest Service. (2020). Winter motor vehicle use map: White River National Forest, Dillon Ranger District, Colorado, effective dates Nov. 23-May 20 [Map]. University of Northern Colorado James A. Michener Library, Greeley, CO, United States.

Mixed Media

Anatsui, E. (2005). Fading cloth [Mixed media artwork]. Saint Louis Art Museum, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Bradford, M. (2007). Helter skelter I [Mixed media artwork]. The Broad, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Kokin, L. (2003). Approximation #3 [Mixed media artwork]. Boise Art Museum, Boise, ID, United States.

Pindell, H. (1990). Autobiography: Scapegoat [Mixed media artwork]. Garth Greenan Gallery, New York, NY, United States.


Dali, S. (1972). Mae West lips sofa [Furniture]. Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Oscar Heyman Brothers. (1929). Marjorie Merriweather post brooch [Jewelry]. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, United States.

Tiffany, L. C. (ca. 1910-1920). Hibiscus and parrots [Stained glass window]. The Met, New York, NY, United States.

United States Army. (1912-1923). 115th cavalry WWI corporal garrison uniform [Clothing]. Military Memorial Museum, Cheyenne, WY, United States.


Boardman, S. A. (2011). President Obama, Denver State Commission [Painting; Portrait]. Colorado State Capitol, Denver, CO, United States.

Duesberry, J. (n.d.). Still life with chintz and books [Painting]. University of Northern Colorado Archives & Special Collections @ Digital UNC, Greeley, CO, United States.

Green, W. O. (n.d.). The search for knowledge [Painting; Triptych]. University of Northern Colorado James A. Michener Library, Greeley, CO, United States.

Silva, A., & Kiess, Z. (2020). In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity [Painting; Mural]. 9th Avenue and 7th Street, Greeley, CO, United States.


Bell, C. M. (ca. 1849-1893). American Indian man with headdress and bear claw necklace and ornaments [Photograph]. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, United States.

McClure, L. C. (1927). [Photograph of the view of Voorhies Memorial with Christmas decorations, Civic Center, Denver, Colorado]. Western History Collection, Denver Public Library, Denver, CO, United States.

Vavra, R. (n.d.). Portrait of James A. Michener [Photograph]. University of Northern Colorado Archives & Special Collections @ Digital UNC, Greeley, CO, United States.

Woodman, F. (ca. 1975-1978). [Self-portrait in cemetery with camera in front of face] [Photograph]. Museum of Contemporary Art, Denver, CO, United States.


Černý, D. (2007). Metalmorphosis [Sculpture]. Whitehall Corporate Center, Charlotte, NC, United States.

Kim, M. C. (1998). Sugar Land quan âm [Sculpture]. Vietnamese Buddhist Center, Sugar Land, TX, United States.

Lundeen, G. (1993). The promise of the prairie [Sculpture]. Lincoln Park, Greeley, CO, United States.

Shippen, G. (2016). Sentinel of the Plains [Sculpture]. Brinton Museum, Big Horn, WY, United States.


When Websites Are NOT Websites
When citing the digital version of another type of source, cite it not as a website but as the specific type of source. For example, a digital journal article should be cited as journal article, not a website; a YouTube video should be cited as a video, not a website. This is true for books, book chapters, newspaper articles, magazine articles, dissertations, theses, capstones, grants, podcast, government reports, etc. For more information, refer to the Publication Manual, p. 282, 9.2. 

Information Needed

  • Author(s) (group(s), individual(s), or a combination)
  • Date of publication
    • Make sure that the date for the citation refers to the date of the specific content.
    • Do not use a copyright date from a website footer as is does not reflect the date the information was created/published. If the copyright date in the website footer is the only data on the website, use n.d. in place of a date to indicate 'no date.'
  • Title 
  • Site name
  • Retrieval date
    • Include a retrieval date only if the website has information that is designed to change over time
  • URL 


Website, Author and Publisher Are Different

Central Intelligence Agency. (2022, March 3). Bolivia. The World Factbook.

Mullis, K. (n.d.). Altermune: Chemically programmable immunity. Dr. Kary Banks Mullis 1944-2019.  

National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. (2022, January 15). Famotidine. MedlinePlus. Retrieved March 17, 2022, from

Murray, J. (2021, July 29). What are goji berries? The Spruce Eats.

Website, Author and Publisher Are Same

American Red Cross. (n.d.). Building safer communities: Preparing families for disasters around the globe.

Life Is Good. (n.d.). One van two brothers three simple words: Life is good.

The King Center. (n.d.). The King philosophy – Nonviolence365.

University of Northern Colorado. (2022, January 20). Office of the president: About President Feinstein.